Regents Professor and Director of the School of Molecular Biosciences
Room: BLS 247 -or- BLS 202F
Phone: 509-335-6281 -or- 509-335-8724
Room: BLS 240
Dr. Michael D. Griswold, Regents Professor of Molecular Biosciences at Washington State University (WSU), is world-renowned for his contributions to our understanding of Sertoli cell structure and functions and the crucial role of Vitamin A in spermatogenesis and a loyal member of Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR). Mike received a B.S. in Chemistry and Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Wyoming. He conducted postdoctoral studies with Dr. Philip Cohen at the University of Wisconsin, funded by an NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship, working on amphibian metampophosis, and with Dr. Flauco P. Tocchini-Valentini in Rome, funded by an EMBO Fellowship, on Xenopus RNA. Mike spent a year as an Assistant Professor of Pharmacology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. He then spent two years as a Research Associate in the laboratory of Dr. Irving Fritz at the University of Toronto, where he acquired what would become a life-long interest in Sertoli cells. Mike joined the faculty of WSU in 1976 as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences, was promoted to Associate and then full Professor, appointed Chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics in 1994, Director of the School of Molecular Biosciences in 1999, and Dean of the College of Sciences, a position he held from 2003-2010. Mike became a Regents Professor of Molecular Biosciences in 2008, and in 2011, received the WSU Eminent Faculty Award, the highest faculty honor at WSU.
Mike’s research has been continuously funded by the NIH since 1977 (with the same grant “Hormonal Control of the Maturation of Sertoli Cells”), including a Research Career Develop Award (1979-1984) and MERIT Award (1997-2007). He has published more than 230 original scientific articles, book chapters, and review articles. His recognition in the field of Sertoli cell function and spermatogenesis is evidenced by his many keynote addresses that include the SSR President’s Symposium (1994 and 2007), Larry Ewing Lecture at Johns Hopkins University (2001), Andrew Nalbandov Lecture at the University of Illinois (1993), Asdell Lecture at Cornell University (2008), the Bailly Lecture at Southern Illinois University (2010), the Serono Lecturer at the Andrology Society (1994), and the Distinguished Faculty Address at WSU (1994). Mike received the WSU Sahlin Excellence in Research Award (1999) and the SSR Research Award (2006), and became an AAAS Fellow in 2009. In addition, he was the 2013 recipient of the Carl G. Hartman Award, one of the most prestigious award conferred by the Society for the Study of Reproduction.
Mike is an exemplary mentor. He trained 7 MS students, 24 graduate students that include Mike Skinner, Ken Roberts and Leslie Heckert, and 26 postdoctoral fellows and research associates that include Carlos Morales, Kwan Hee Kim, Carol Linder, Dereck McLean, and Cathryn Hogarth. Mike received the Frontiers in Reproduction Beacon Award in 2008 for his outstanding mentoring. One of his former students, Leslie Heckert wrote: “His high expectations returned dedication, creativity and independence from the members of his laboratory, which in turn produced a vibrant and exciting research environment. He led by example, support and occasionally by providing unsolicited words of encouragement...”.
Mike has unselfishly served his profession, SSR, the Andrology Society, and the Testis Workshop. He was a member of the SSR Board of Directors (1989-1992), SSR Annual Meeting Program Chair (1998), SSR President-Elect and President (1997-1999), Andrology Society Board of Directors (2000-2003), and Program Committee Chair for Testis Workshop (1993 and 2007) and Andrology Society (1996). He served the NIH on the Reproductive Biology Study Section (1983-1987, and continues to do ad hoc reviews for the NIH. Mike has also served as an Editorial Board Member for Endocrinology, Journal of Andrology, Biology of Reproduction, Endocrine Journal, Molecular Cellular Endocrinology, and Spermatogenesis.
Mike’s contributions to Sertoli cell physiology and spermatogenesis are impressive. His lab demonstrated in 1980 that vitamin A modulated Sertoli cell function, in 1987 that vitamin A altered Sertoli cell gene expression, and in 1987 in a landmark publication with Carlos Morales, that retinol induced synchronization of seminiferous tubules in vitamin A-deficient rats. The crucial role that vitamin A plays in regulating germ cell entry into meiosis is still being investigated today not only by the Griswold lab but also by many others in the field, including Kwan Hee Kim, Peter Koopman, and David Page. Moreover, Mike’s leadership role in this area is evidenced by his collaborative publications with John McCarrey, the late Lonnie Russell, Martin Dym, Bob Braun, Kate Loveland, David Zarkower, Marvin Meistrich, and Paul Cooke.
Mike’s lab pioneered microarray/gene profiling analyses of FSH-treated Sertoli cells, beginning in 2002, followed by analysis of spermatogonial stem cells, testis, seminiferous epithelium, epididymis, spermatogenesis, and embryonic development of the testis. These databases are freely available to the scientific community. The number of investigators across the world that have used these data bases is remarkable.
As evidenced from the comments above, Mike has been at the forefront of research in male reproductive biology for the past three decades. Leslie Heckert wrote: “His ideas, approaches, and results have enhanced our understanding of Sertoli cell and gamete function, improved animal models and methodologies for the study of spermatogenesis, and precipitated new concepts in testis biology, contraception and infertility. Because of Dr. Griswold, more is known about the role of retinoic acid in regulating meiosis and the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, the actions of FSH and testosterone, Sertoli cell function, and the characteristics of spermatogonial stem cells.”
Normal fertility in the male requires the constant production of large numbers of gametes over a long time period. Spermatogenesis is a very complex, highly organized and regulated process that involves mitosis, meiosis and unique pathways of differentiation. In general, spermatogenesis involves three major biological fundamentals: (a) the renewal of stem cells and the production and expansion of progenitor cells (mitosis) (b) the reduction, by one-half, of the chromosome numbers in progenitor cells (meiosis) and (c) the unique differentiation of haploid cells (spermiogenesis). Early progenitor cells or spermatogonia are defined as “undifferentiated” or A spermatogonia in the mouse. Once the spermatogonia enter the “differentiation” pathway they begin the series of differentiation steps leading to meiosis and spermiogenesis. The endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis occurs by the interplay of gonadotropins and steroids with the somatic cells of the seminiferous tubules (Sertoli cell and Leydig cells) and of vitamin A directly with the germinal cells.
The research in my laboratory has been directed towards the understanding of mammalian spermatogenesis at the molecular level. Our current studies are focused on the role of vitamin A in this process. In particular we are interested in the mechanisms by which retinoic acid (vitamin A) influences the commitment of germ cells to enter meiosis. These mechanisms are central to the timing of sperm production and the organization of gametogenesis.
In our initial approach we developed extensive mRNA and microRNA expression data bases for both germ cells and somatic cells in the testis using array technology and we are currently enhancing that information using next generation sequencing. Our databases cover nearly all aspects of spermatogenesis including cell specific expression and hormone responsive transcription and are used by investigators worldwide. Our latest emphasis has been on discovering the genes expressed in germ cells that enable the entry of these cells into meiosis. We then examine the role of these genes using a variety of genetic approaches with transgenic mice. The projects span the disciplines from biochemistry to genetics to cell biology.
- Griswold MD, Hogarth C. (2018) Beyond Stem Cells: The Commitment of Progenitor Cells to Meiosis. Stem Cell Res 27:169-171. doi: 10.1016/j.scr.2018.01.032. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29415862 PMCID: PMC5860671
- Griswold MD (2018) 50 years of Spermatogenesis: Sertoli cells and their Interactions with Germ Cells. Biol Reprod. 10.1093/biolre/ioy027. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29462262 PMCID:
- Agrimson KS, Oatley MJ, Mitchell D, Oatley JM, Griswold MD, Hogarth CA. (2017) Retinoic acid deficiency leads to an increase in spermatogonial stem number in the neonatal mouse testis. Dev Biol. 432(2):229-236. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.10.002. Epub 2017 Oct 14. PMID: 29037932 PMCID: PMC5736010
- Newkirk SJ, Lee S, Grandi FC, Gaysinskaya V, Rosser JM, Vanden Berg N, Hogarth CA, Marchetto MCN, Muotri AR, Griswold MD, Ye P, Bortvin A, Gage FH, Boeke JD, An W. (2017) The intact piRNA pathway prevents L1 mobilization in male meiosis Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114(28):E5635-E5644. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1701069114. Epub 2017 Jun 19. PMID: 28630288 PMCID: PMC5514719
- Agrimson KS, Onken J, Mitchell D, Topping TB, Chiarini-Garcia H, Hogarth CA, Griswold MD. (2016) Characterizing the Spermatogonial Response to Retinoic Acid During the Onset of Spermatogenesis and Following Synchronization in the Neonatal Mouse Testis. Biol Reprod. 95(4):81. Epub 2016 Aug 3. PMID: 27488029 PMCID: PMC5176362
- Chen Y, Ma L, Hogarth C, Wei G, Griswold MD, Tong MH. (2016) Retinoid signaling controls spermatogonial differentiation by regulating expression of replication-dependent core histone genes. Development. 143(9):1502-11. doi: 10.1242/dev.135939. Epub 2016 Mar 10. PMID: 26965368 PMCID: PMC4986167
- França LR, Hess RA, Dufour JM, Hofmann MC, Griswold MD. (2016) The Sertoli cell: one hundred fifty years of beauty and plasticity. Andrology. 4(2):189-212. doi: 10.1111/andr.12165. Epub 2016 Feb 4. PMID: 26846984 PMCID: PMC5461925
- Griswold MD (2016) Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis. Physiol Rev. 96(1):1-17. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2015. PMID: 26537427 PMCID: PMC4698398
- Kent T, Arnold SL, Fasnacht R, Rowsey R, Mitchell D, Hogarth CA, Isoherranen N, Griswold MD. (2016) ALDH Enzyme Expression Is Independent of the Spermatogenic Cycle, and Their Inhibition Causes Misregulation of Murine Spermatogenic Processes. Biol Reprod. 94(1):12. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.115.131458. Epub 2015 Dec 2. PMID: 26632609 PMCID: PMC4809557
- Arnold SL, Kent T, Hogarth CA, Griswold MD, Amory JK, Isoherranen N. (2015) Pharmacological inhibition of ALDH1A in mice decreases all-trans retinoic acid concentrations in a tissue specific manner. Biochem Pharmacol. 95(3):177-92. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2015.03.001. Epub 2015 Mar 9. PMID: 25764981 PMCID: PMC4420653
- Evans E, Hogarth C, Mitchell D, Griswold M (2014) Riding the spermatogenic wave: profiling gene expression within neonatal germ and Sertoli cells during a synchronized initial wave of spermatogenesis in mice. Biol Reprod. 90, 108 PMID: 24719255 PMCID:
- Kent T, Griswold MD (2014) Checking the Pulse of Vitamin A Metabolism and Signaling during Mammalian Spermatogenesis J. Dev. Biol. 2, 34-49 PMID: PMCID:
- Sanz E, Evanoff R, Quintana A, Evans E, Miller JA, Ko C, Amieux PS, Griswold MD, McKnight GS (2013) RiboTag Analysis of Actively Translated mRNAs in Sertoli and Leydig Cells In Vivo. PLoS One 8 PMID: 23776628 PMCID:
- Davis JC, Snyder EM, Hogarth CA, Small C, Griswold MD (2013) Induction of spermatogenic synchrony by retinoic acid in neonatal mice. Spermatogenesis 3 PMID: 23687613 PMCID:
- Hogarth CA, Griswold MD (2013) Retinoic acid regulation of male meiosis. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 20(3), 217-23 PMID: 23511242 PMCID:
- Krentz AD, Murphy MW, Zhang T, Sarver AL, Jain S, Griswold MD, Bardwell VJ, Zarkower D (2013) Interaction between DMRT1 function and genetic background modulates signaling and pluripotency to control tumor susceptibility in the fetal germ line. Dev Biol. 377, 67-78 PMID: 23473982 PMCID:
- Hogarth CA, Evanoff R, Mitchell D, Kent T, Small C, Amory JK, Griswold MD (2013) Turning a Spermatogenic Wave into a Tsunami: Synchronizing Murine Spermatogenesis Using WIN 18,446. Biol Reprod. 88, 40 PMID: 23284139 PMCID:
- Tong MH, Yang QE, Davis JC, Griswold MD (2013) Retinol dehydrogenase 10 is indispensible for spermatogenesis in juvenile males. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110, 543-548 PMID: 23267101 PMCID:
- Griswold MD, Oatley JM (2013) Defining characteristics of mammalian spermatogenic stem cells. Stem Cells. 31(1), 8-11 PMID: 23074087 PMCID: PMC5312674
- Hogarth CA, Griswold MD (2013) Immunohistochemical approaches for the study of spermatogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 927, 309-320 PMID: 22992925 PMCID:
- Griswold MD (2012) Making male gametes in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 16762-16763 PMID: 23047695 PMCID:
- Wolgemuth DJ, Griswold MD, Grimes DA (2012) Parsing the potential of a new male contraceptive. Nat Med. 33, 1085-1095 PMID: 22879526 PMCID:
- Evans EB, Hogarth C, Evanoff RM, Mitchell D, Small C, Griswold MD (2012) Localization and regulation of murine esco2 during male and female meiosis. Biol Reprod. 87, 61 PMID: 22699483 PMCID:
- Wu Q, Song R, Ortogero N, Zheng H, Evanoff R, Small CL, Griswold MD, Namekawa SH, Royo H, Turner JM, Yan W (2012) The RNase III enzyme DROSHA is essential for microRNA production and spermatogenesis. J Biol Chem. 287(30), 25173-90 PMID: 22665486 PMCID: PMC3408133
- Ray D, Hogarth CA, Evans EB, An W, Griswold MD, Ye P (2012) Experimental validation of Ankrd17 and Anapc10, two novel meiotic genes predicted by computational models in mice. Biol Reprod. 86, 102 PMID: 22190705 PMCID:
- Tong MH, Mitchell DA, McGowan SD, Evanoff R, Griswold MD. (2012) Two miRNA clusters, Mir-17-92 (Mirc1) and Mir-106b-25 (Mirc3), are involved in the regulation of spermatogonial differentiation in mice. Biol Reprod. 86, 72 PMID: 22116806 PMCID:
- Griswold MD, Hogarth CA, Bowles J, Koopman P (2012) Initiating meiosis: the case for retinoic acid. Biol Reprod. 86, 35 PMID: 22075477 PMCID:
- de Rooij DG, Griswold MD (2012) Questions about spermatogonia posed and answered since 2000. J Androl. 33, 1085-1095 PMID: 22879526 PMCID:
- Matson CK, Murphy MW, Sarver AL, Griswold MD, Bardwell VJ, Zarkower D (2011) DMRT1 prevents female reprogramming in the postnatal mammalian testis. Nature 476, 101-104 PMID: 21775990 PMCID:
- Krentz AD, Murphy MW, Sarver AL, Griswold MD, Bardwell VJ, Zarkower D (2011) DMRT1 promotes oogenesis by transcriptional activation of Stra8 in the mammalian fetal ovary. Dev Biol. 356, 63-7 PMID: 21621532 PMCID: PMC3131262
- Sinnar SA, Small CL, Evanoff RM, Reinholdt LG, Griswold MD, Kopito RR, Ryu KY (2011) Altered testicular gene expression patterns in mice lacking the polyubiquitin gene Ubb. Mol Reprod Dev. 78, 415-425 PMID: 21542049 PMCID: PMC3133727
- Tong MH, Mitchell D, Evanoff R, Griswold MD (2011) Expression of Mirlet7 family microRNAs in response to retinoic acid-induced spermatogonial differentiation in mice. Biol Reprod. 85, 189-197 PMID: 21430230 PMCID:
- Zhou W, Wang G, Small CL, Liu Z, Weng CC, Yang L, Griswold MD, Meistrich ML (2011) Gene expression alterations by conditional knockout of androgen receptor in adult Sertoli cells of Utp14b jsd/jsd (jsd) mice. Biol Reprod. 84, 400-408 PMID: 21312389 PMCID: PMC3071269
- Hogarth CA, Amory JK, Griswold MD (2011) Inhibiting vitamin A metabolism as an approach to male contraception.
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 22, 136-144 PMID: 21277790 PMCID: PMC3070762
- Snyder EM, Davis JC, Zhou Q, Evanoff R, Griswold MD (2011) Exposure to retinoic acid in the neonatal but not adult mouse results in synchronous spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 84, 886-893 PMID: 21228214 PMCID:
- Hogarth CA, Evanoff R, Snyder E, Kent T, Mitchell D, Small C, Amory JK, Griswold MD (2011) Suppression of Stra8 expression in the mouse gonad by WIN 18,446. Biol Reprod. 84, 957-965 PMID: 21209416 PMCID:
- Hogarth CA, Mitchell D, Evanoff R, Small C, Griswold MD (2011) Identification and expression of potential regulators of the mammalian mitotic-to-meiotic transition. Biol Reprod. 84, 34-42 PMID: 20826732 PMCID:
- Amory JK, Muller CH, Shimshoni JA, Isoherranen N, Paik J, Moreb JS, Amory DW, Evanoff R, Goldstein AS, Griswold MD (2010) Suppression of Spermatogenesis by Bisdichloroacetyldiamines Is Mediated by Inhibition of Testicular Retinoic Acid Biosynthesis. J Androl. PMID: 20705791 PMCID: PMC3370679
- Matson CK, Murphy MW, Griswold MD, Yoshida S, Bardwell VJ, Zarkower D (2010) The mammalian doublesex homolog DMRT1 is a transcriptional gatekeeper that controls the mitosis versus meiosis decision in male germ cells. Dev Cell. 19, 612-624 PMID: 20951351 PMCID:
- Snyder EM, Small CL, Bomgardner D, Xu B, Evanoff R, Griswold MD, Hinton BT (2010) Gene expression in the efferent ducts, epididymis, and vas deferens during embryonic development of the mouse. Dev Dyn. 239, 2479-2491 PMID: 20652947 PMCID: PMC2939230
- Snyder E, Small C, Griswold MD (2010) Retinoic Acid Availability Drives the Asynchronous Initiation of Spermatogonial Differentiation in the Mouse. Biol Reprod. PMID: 20650878 PMCID:
- Hogarth CA, Griswold MD (2010) The key role of vitamin A in spermatogenesis. J Clin Invest. 120, 956-962 PMID: 20364093 PMCID: PMC2846058
- Zheng P, Griswold MD, Hassold TJ, Hunt PA, Small CL, Ye P (2010) Predicting Meiotic Pathways in Human Fetal Oogenesis. Biol Reprod. 82(3), 543-51 PMID: 19846598 PMCID:
- Hogarth C, Mitchell D, Small C, Griswold, MD (2010) EGGR4 displays both a cell and intracellular -specific localization pattern in the developing murine testis Dev Dyn. 239, 3106-3114 PMID: 20925118 PMCID:
- Krentz AD, Murphy MW, Kim S, Cook MS, Capel B, Zhu R, Matin A, Sarver AL, Parker KL, Griswold MD, Looijenga LH, Bardwell VJ (2009) The DM domain protein DMRT1 is a dose-sensitive regulator of fetal germ cell proliferation and pluripotency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106(52), 22323-8 PMID: 20007774 PMCID: PMC2799724
- Snyder, EM. Small, CL. Li, Y. Griswold, MD (2009) Regulation of Gene Expression by Estrogen and Testosterone in the Murine Proximal Reproductive Tract Biol Reprod. 81(4), 707-716 PMID: 19553595 PMCID:
- Houmard B, Small C, Yang L, Naluai-Cecchini T, Cheng E, Hassold T, Griswold MD (2009) Global Gene Expression in the Human Fetal Testis and Ovary. Biol Reprod. 81(2), 438-443 PMID: 19369649 PMCID:
- Li Y, Zhou Q, Hively R, Yang L, Small C, Griswold MD (2009) Differential Gene Expression in the Testes of Different Murine Strains under Normal and Hyperthermic Conditions. J Androl. 30(3), 325-337 PMID: 19096088 PMCID: PMC3209712
- Xu M, You Y, Hunsicker P, Hori T, Small C, Griswold MD, Hecht NB (2008) Mice deficient for a small cluster of Piwi-interacting RNAs implicate Piwi-interacting RNAs in transposon control. Biol Reprod. 79(1), 51-7 PMID: 18401007 PMCID:
- Zhou Q, Nie R, Li Y, Friel P, Mitchell D, Hess RA, Small C, Griswold MD (2008) Expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) in spermatogenic cells induced by retinoic acid: an in vivo study in vitamin A-sufficient postnatal murine testes. Biol Reprod. 79(1), 35-42 PMID: 18322276 PMCID:
- Zhou Q, Li Y, Nie R, Friel P, Mitchell D, Evanoff RM, Pouchnik D, Banasik B, McCarrey JR, Small C, Griswold MD (2008) Expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) and maturation of murine gonocytes and spermatogonia induced by retinoic acid in vitro. Biol Reprod. 78(3), 537-45 PMID: 18032419 PMCID:
- Dass B, Tardif S, Park JY, Tian B, Weitlauf HM, Hess RA, Carnes K, Griswold MD, Small CL, Macdonald CC (2007) Loss of polyadenylation protein tauCstF-64 causes spermatogenic defects and male infertility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104(51), 20374-9 PMID: 18077340 PMCID: PMC2154438
- Eddy EM, Griswold MD (2007) Overview: testicular chromosome structure and gene expression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1120 PMID: 18184908 PMCID:
- Morrow CM, Hostetler CE, Griswold MD, Hofmann MC, Murphy KM, Cooke PS, Hess RA (2007) ETV5 is required for continuous spermatogenesis in adult mice and may mediate blood testes barrier function and testicular immune privilege. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1120, 144-51 PMID: 17911411 PMCID:
- Doyle TJ, Braun KW, McLean DJ, Wright RW, Griswold MD, Kim KH (2007) Potential functions of retinoic acid receptor A in Sertoli cells and germ cells during spermatogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1120, 114-30 PMID: 17905941 PMCID:
- Eacker SM, Shima JE, Connolly CM, Sharma M, Holdcraft RW, Griswold MD, Braun RE (2007) Transcriptional profiling of androgen receptor (AR) mutants suggests instructive and permissive roles of AR signaling in germ cell development. Mol Endocrinol. 21(4), 895-907 PMID: 17244764 PMCID:
- Fox MS, Clark AT, El Majdoubi M, Vigne JL, Urano J, Hostetler CE, Griswold MD, Weiner RI, Reijo Pera RA (2007) Intermolecular interactions of homologs of germ plasm components in mammalian germ cells. Dev Biol. 301(2), 417-31 PMID: 16996493 PMCID: PMC2563953
- Namekawa SH, Park PJ, Zhang LF, Shima JE, McCarrey JR, Griswold MD, Lee JT (2006) Postmeiotic sex chromatin in the male germline of mice. Curr Biol. 16(7), 660-7 PMID: 16581510 PMCID:
- Koubova J, Menke DB, Zhou Q, Capel B, Griswold MD, Page DC (2006) Retinoic acid regulates sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(8), 2474-9 PMID: 16461896 PMCID: PMC1413806
- Lee TH, Yi W, Griswold MD, Zhu F, Her C (2006) Formation of hMSH4-hMSH5 heterocomplex is a prerequisite for subsequent GPS2 recruitment. DNA Repair (Amst). 5(1), 32-42 PMID: 16122992 PMCID:
- Meng J, Holdcraft RW, Shima JE, Griswold MD, Braun RE (2005) Androgens regulate the permeability of the blood-testis barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102(46), 16696-700 PMID: 16275920 PMCID:
- Li Y, Putnam-Lawson CA, Knapp-Hoch H, Friel PJ, Mitchell D, Hively R, Griswold MD (2005) Immunolocalization and regulation of cystatin 12 in mouse testis and epididymis. Biol Reprod. 73(5), 872-80 PMID: 15972886 PMCID:
- Zhou Q, Shima JE, Nie R, Friel PJ, Griswold MD (2005) Androgen-regulated transcripts in the neonatal mouse testis as determined through microarray analysis. Biol Reprod. 72(4), 1010-9 PMID: 15601916 PMCID:
- Small CL, Shima JE, Uzumcu M, Skinner MK, Griswold MD (2005) Profiling gene expression during the differentiation and development of the murine embryonic gonad. Biol Reprod. 72(2), 492-501 PMID: 15496517 PMCID:
- Sadate-Ngatchou PI, Pouchnik DJ, Griswold MD (2004) Follicle-stimulating hormone induced changes in gene expression of murine testis. Mol Endocrinol. 18(11), 2805-16 PMID: 15297604 PMCID: